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Mr. Pedak’s 16 years of experience in Ostarbeiter research and reunions were published in a 317-page work, “Hirke Slovo Ostarbaiter” (“Ostarbeiter – A BitterWord”). Of the many chapters of Ukraine’s tragic 20th century history overlooked by the world’s historians, the story of the Ostarbeiters is among the most forgotten, even among Ukrainians themselves. In addition to the 5.5 million civilian and 2.5 million military casualties Ukraine endured in World War II, an estimated 2.3 million to 2.4 million Ukrainian youth were rounded up by the Nazis and shipped to provide slave labor for German families, factories and offices. Ukrainians accounted for about 85 per cent of the total Ostarbeiter workforce of 2.8 million that was dragged by the Nazis from the Soviet Union. The Ostarbeiters ranged from as young as10 to their mid-20s, and an estimated 200,000 Ukrainian Ostarbeiters immigrated to the West.